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Biology conservation background in Iran:

The conservation has a large history over thousands of years ago in Iran and the world. According to historical documents and finds, the first park and protected area is related to King Xashaiar in 2500 years ago. These areas protected as a game hunting area or a game reserve, in the way that could provide a safety place for hunting or recreating kings and monarchy members. In addition, first protected forest area that is named paradise was created for public recreation in the same period as evidenced by some old garden such as Mahan, Fin, Aram where are historical remainders of different kingdoms in Iran. Yellow stone national park and Golestan national park are the first in the world and Iran, respectively. The first group of protected area in Iran was designated as national park; wildlife refuge and protected area which is protected based on IUCN criteria in 1967, to conserve the gene pool, habitats, animal and plant species, beautiful views and unique landscapes.

Department of the Environment background:

Department of the Environment was created after changing and revolutionizing the structure of the game and fish department of Iran and some relative laws. Forming of  DOE begun base on introducing of some bills and their adoption over the far past. In the way that the first adoption of law in relation of wildlife back  to 1928. The bill of the game including 7 articles and 10 notes against hunting and shooting firstly were passed by the parliament and then the game club of Iran as an independent department established to protect animals and enforce the Game Act.

The administrative by law of the Game Act including 4 seasons and 57 articles was passed by the cabinet and enforced in 1957. This by law was amended where by the structure of the game council changed to power and strengthen the Game Act in 1959.

The particular ecosystems such as parks and protected areas are firstly being considered by law makers. The game and hunting act consisting of 31 articles passed at 16 of June 1967. The mentioned  act caused that the Game club of Iran was replaced by the game and hunting department of Iran. The new department was conducted by the high council for environment protection. Finally game and fish hunting department has finally been replaced by current Department of the Environment after disorganization of natural resources ministry, in accordance with article 4 of official structure review act in 1971. Appropriate measures must be taken by DOE in order to preventing any kind of activities which will lead to environment pollution, or habitat destruction. Air pollution preventing by law in according with article 10 of environmental conservation and promotion act was adopted by parliament on July 1975. After the victory of Islamic Republic revolution in south principle (approved on 1979) has legally emphasized on the protection of the environment that today's generation and the future generations should have growing life is a public duty. The principle has banned any kind of economical or social activities which will lead to the pollution and irrevocable habitat destruction.


Geographical location

  Mazandaran province with an area of 23756 square kilometers (1.46 percent of the total area of the country) is placed between 35 47 to 36 35 latitude and 50 34 to 54 10 longitude. Mazandaran province is 18th province in point of view of area of the land in the country.

Political situation:

Mazandaran province is totally limited to southern Caspian Sea coast in the North. Therefore Mazandaran province can be taken into account as a borderline province because of being neighbor with 5 countries of around Caspian Sea. Azerbaijan in west and western north are nearest neighbors to Mazandaran province respectively. Alborz Mountains and five provinces including Gilan, Golestan, Semnan, Ghazvin and Tehran have surrounded Mazandaran province.

Central Alborz Mountain range alike a stone wall both has separated Mazandaran from other places of the country and has created two distinct parts, Caspian sea low lands and high lands regions. Climate is diverse as well as topography in Mazandaran. Therefore, there are moderate and humid in coasty lowlands and mountain side regions and alpine conditions in highland regions.

Surface water resources are rivers which are widely distributed through Mazandaran from Ramsar city to Galogah city with an area of catchment 25642 square kilometers. These rivers originate from Alborz Mountains and flow finally into the Caspian sea. The rivers are grouped according to area to area and amount of floe to big (10 rivers), middle (16 rivers) and small (21 rivers). Ground water resources in Mazandaran are satisfactory due to humidity climate, ample raining numerous run off and permanent rivers and so rich plant covers and alluvium plains distance between the sea and the mountain. The total area of Mazandaran Hyrcanian forests is estimated at 11.7255 hectares. Existence of broad leaf trees has separated it from other forest in Iran. Important tree species of Mazandaran Hyrcanian forest contain meanwhile, its most important protected species include the area of postures have been estimated 584712 hectares that are geographically divided into three types of postures, winter, summer and middle.

Caspian Sea with an area of 437000 square kilometers as the biggest lake in the world is placed among Iran, Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.